In the 1970s and 1980s, Poland was sometimes called “the Holland of Eastern Europe”, referring to its considerable floricultural production sector. In those times, Dianthus and Gerbera were the main products cultivated. The increasing costs of energy after the fall of communism forced many growers to stop their production in the early 1990s.
Up-to-date statististics on the Polish floricultural sector are scarce. In 2005, the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture Poland estimated the value of cut flower and pot plant production in Poland at € 501-536 million in 2003. Approximately € 456 million of the production value was ascribed to greenhouse production (cut flowers, pot plants and bulbs). Another € 45-70 million was ascribed to production in open area.
According to the Polish agricultural census of 2002, the greenhouse area for floriculture was 1,417 hectares in 2002. It is estimated that cut flowers account for about 65% of this area. The open area for the production of floricultural products amounted to 3,176 hectares. Around 15% of this area is used for the production of cut flowers. According to an article in Floraculture International, this area is declining. Industry sources, however, indicate that the industry is very much in transition to more effective production and more cooperation. Polish production is particularly strong in spring and in summer.
According to shares in total acreage, Poland produces mostly Rosa (27%), Gerbera (19%), Dendranthema (14%), Dianthus (12%), Freesia (6%) and Anthurium (5%) (Agricultural University of Warschaw, 2000). The total assortment of cut flowers produced in Poland is still limited, but a few crops are growing in importance like Eustoma (Lisianthus), Zantedeschia, Tulipa and Anthurium. One of the largest Anthurium farms in Europe is the 3.5 hectares big farm of JMP near Lublin. Although traditionally an important product featuring many Polish varieties, the cultivation of Gerbera is shrinking.